An individual investment account (IIA) gives an investor the right to receive tax benefits from the state. Benefits and, accordingly, the IIS themselves are of two types. Which one to choose depends on your investment strategy. We will tell you how the types of IIS differ and how much you can save on taxes.

Individual investment accounts can be opened with a management company (trust account), brokerage firms and banks that have a brokerage license. On this account, you can make money and buy securities worth up to 1 million rubles a year. IIS is good because it makes it possible to save on the payment of personal income tax. There are two options for such tax deductions — type A and type B. The minimum «life» of the IIS, which allows you to get a deduction, is 3 years.

Tax deduction type A — investment deduction. The state pays you 13% of the amount that you put on the IIS in the form of a tax deduction. That is, it returns personal income tax from the investment amount. You will receive this interest in any case: you bought securities or simply saved money in the account. The main thing is that the maximum amount for which you can apply for a tax deduction for a contribution should not exceed 400,000 rubles per year.

Tax deduction type B — income deduction. Three years after the opening of the IIA, you can take a certificate from the tax office stating that type A tax deductions have not been used. In this case, you will be able to receive a tax deduction of type B: the trustee or broker will not withhold income tax from you when closing the IIA and withdrawing money from the account.

Only one type of tax deduction is allowed to be selected. This can be done within three years from the moment the IIS was opened, or it can be done immediately — if, after the first year, you apply for a deduction for the contribution.

A type A tax deduction is more profitable for those who receive official income, pay personal income tax from them and do not plan to invest large amounts. After all, 13% tax deduction calculated for 3 years is additional profitability without risk. Even if you combine IIA with the most conservative instruments, for example FXMM with a yield of 6-8%, the total can be more than 15% per annum.

Simple calculation: if you put 350,000 rubles on the IIS, then you can get 45,500 rubles as a tax deduction. True, to be eligible for it, you need to pay personal income tax from official income. If you are earning envelope income or working as a sole proprietor, benefits are not for you.

The tax deduction can be received every year, but on condition that you do not close the IIS for at least three years. If you withdraw earlier, you will have to return the deduction. Withdrawing money from IIS until he turns 3 is tantamount to closing an account — and losing tax benefits.

You need to request a type A deduction through your personal account on nalog.ru. There you will have to fill out a 3-NDFL tax return, indicating the sources and amounts of income, select the type of tax deduction «Securities» and enter the amount that was put on the IIS in the reporting period. The money will come to the specified bank account within three months. Step-by-step instructions on tax deduction (for example, IIS in the Financial Autopilot service) can be

Type B tax deduction is suitable for those who intend to invest significantly more than 400,000 rubles, but within 1,000,000 rubles, or have managed to show well, very high profitability. It is also used by those who do not pay personal income tax and cannot receive a tax deduction, for example, entrepreneurs.

This is an income deduction, and it takes precedence over a Type A deduction only if the investment income is quite high. For example, if you put 400,000 on the IIS every year, then you can return 156,000 in three years by type A. By type B, with a yield of 20% — only about 64,000. But if you donate 400,000 to your account every year, and the maximum possible 1,000,000 rubles with the same yield of 20%, then the deduction for type A will be the same 156,000. And for type B — already 178,000. But it is difficult to predict the yield in advance. Therefore, it is logical to start investing and see what is more profitable.

IIS appeared quite recently — in 2015. So the authorities decided to teach Russians to invest. And it seems to be successful: at the end of 2018, 502 thousand IIS were opened, which is 60% more than a year earlier. In 2018, according to NAUFOR, Russians placed 80 billion rubles in investment accounts — almost 3 times more than a year earlier.

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